If you are searching for roles of Motivation in Sports Psychology, then you are at the correct place because we are going to explain the role of motivation in sports.
If you have any doubt related to roles of Motivation in Sports Psychology in Physical Education, your all doubt are going to be clear in this article.
So lets get started…
But before knowing more about 11+ weird roles of Motivation in Sports Psychology, you should know what is Psychology.
What is Psychology ?
Psychology is derived from Latin word ‘psyche’ and ‘logas’ which means soul study’. Today psychology is considered as the science of behaviour. This definition has passed through many stages.
According to Wikipedia, Psychology is the science of mind and behaviour and it includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena together with feelings and thoughts.
Definitions of Psychology
According to Woodworth : “Psychology is the scientific study of the individual’s activity in relation to environment.”
According to McDougall: “Psychology is the positive science of conduct of behaviour.”
According to Crow & Crow: “Psychology is the science of human behaviour and its relationship.” It is accepted as a science because it involves certain principles like investigation, classification, verification and generalization, etc.
In psychological research, there are valid and reliable tools which help in arriving at a confirmed conclusion.
Apart from this, psychology throws light on the deep study of relation between mind and body; like behaviour, attitude, interest, thinking, learning emotions, incentives, motivation, consciousness, memory, sentiments, imagination, direct co-ordination, power of mind, normal activities, knowledge, determination, feelings of behavioural responses, etc.
Now lets discuss about Sports Psychology…
What is Sports Psychology ?
Sports psychology is the branch of applied psychology which deals with sports performance and behaviour of a player during training and competition.
So it is the science which studies player’s behaviour to improve performance. The purpose of sports psychology is to understand the behaviour of sportsperson and modify him according to the needs of situation and optimise the benefit for better performance and excellence.
According to K.M. Burns : “Sports psychology for physical education is that branch of psychology which deals with physical fitness of an individual through his participation in games and sports.”
According to Browne & Makoney : “It is the study of the application of psychological principles to sports and physical activities at all levels of skill improvement.”
According to Clark & Clark: “Sports psychology is an applied psychology. It is more concerned with the personalities, emotional or motivational aspects of sports and physical activities. It employs many of the techniques used in psychology.”
These were the main theories of Sports Psychology.
Importance of Sports Psychology
The importance of sports psychology in physical education is increasing as problems of sportsperson have increased, Today competitions are tougher than before and there is a lot of stress over players.
To relieve the stress and to modify behaviour towards high performance is the objective of sports psychology.
Sports psychology helps coaches to make the best selection of players to guides good coaching methods. It also prepares players for various stress situations, motivates players to perform better, etc.
Following are the importance of Sports Psychology :
- Improves Performance : The knowledge of sports psychology helps to improve performance and personality of players by scientific ways of modifying behaviour.
- Motivation and Feedback : Proper motivation and proper feedback enhances the performance of players. It gives counselling to players. This can be guided by sports psychology.
- Check over Declining Performance : Knowledge of sports psychology helps to control and check the declining performance, thus helpful for players and coaches.
- Understanding Learning Rate : The knowledge of psychology helps to understand the learning rate, learning curve, development patterns, etc.
- Modifying Behaviour : Sports psychology helps in modifying proper behaviour of sportsperson which helps in the improvement of results and brings better adjustments in various situations.
- Improves Mental Abilities : Sports psychology improves the mental abilities of the sportsperson. Thus, it benefits players for developing the personality.
- Controls Behaviour during Competition : Sports psychology develops proper behavior set-up during competition. It helps player to deal with spectators and crowd. Moreover, it controls behaviour, thus better results.
- Overcoming the Stress : Knowledge of sports psychology helps to overcome stresses and reduces the tensions of players, thus, enhances performance and develops self-confidence.
- Developing Good Relationship : Sports psychology promotes close relationship with other team members. It helps in the overall performance and good team effort.
- Understanding the Needs : Sports psychology helps to understand the needs of the sportsperson. Thus, prospective problems can be sorted out well in advance.
- Better Selection : The knowledge of sports psychology guides the coaches for better selection of players.
- Better Training Methods : As each individual is unique in itself, thus proper training method is guided by sports psychologist by which better results can be achieved.
- Improves Coaching Skills : Knowledge of sports psychology improves the coaching, training and teaching skills, thus, effective learning takes place.
PSYCHOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF EXERCISE
We often hear about the physical benefits of exercise (like improved strength, heart efficiency etc.); less often are the psychological benefits promoted.
Yet engaging in moderate amount of physical activity will result in improved mood and emotional states. Exercise promotes psychological well-being as well as improved quality of life.
The following are common psychological benefits gained through exercise :
- lmproved Mood : Exercise helps to bring happy and improved mood, thus person gains encouragement to do more.
- Reduces Stress : Exercises help to reduce stress as well as they develop ability to cope with stress.
- Improves Self-Esteem : Exercises help to improve self-esteem and a person gains confidence.
- Satisfaction : Exercises help to gain satisfaction factor, thus mind and thoughts remain stable.
- Improves Body Image : Exercises develop good and healthy body image, thus personality is improved.
- High Energy : It provides the feeling of high energy, thus person feels active.
- Positive Attitude : It develops positive attitude towards all, thus improves behaviour.
- Stabilises Emotions : It helps to control emotions; moreover, expresses the emotion in healthy way.
Sports have a code of ethics, which a sportsman follows. It can be said as a prerequisite to membership. There are certain traditions practiced by sportsman. These are not hard and fast rules but still followed in some traditional ways.
First ethic is for the respect of coach or teacher ; who provides coaching, teaching and guidance to improve further.
An honest, sincere respect must be given to the teacher or coach. A trainer must follow every word, advice, command, etc., given by him, without any hesitation.
Second ethic is for use of their playfield and equipment : Player should use the equipment and playfield properly so that it should not get damaged or cause accident or injury to self and others. These should be handled with care in a proper way without hurting any one.
Third ethic is followed for opponent and teammates : To get true practice of skills, technique, to , etc., a strong opponent is required. For this, co-operation from own teammates is required improve his abilities to great extent. This is only possible by following the ethic to respect opponents and teammates.
Fourth ethic is for self : Player should not hurt any body intentionally and follow the rules regulations sincerely. Selfish play spoils the team effort. Every player must play with full effort as a team to bring collective victory and for the honour of self as well as team. All th ethics develop the moral character in a sportsman.
WHAT IS SPORTSMANSHIP ?
In this modern mechanised life, games and sports are very essential. It improves health and physical fitness, but unknowingly it also develops many social qualities which are very important in real life.
Sportsmanship is the desired quality liked by the society. It makes a person emotionally balanced and a socially fit individual, a good citizen who contributes a lot to society.
Qualities of a sportsperson are high level of patience, tolerance, friendly behaviour, positive attitude, following rules regulations, to be in discipline, truthful, acceptance of winning and losing in cheerful way, etc. This high level socialisation process is known as Sportsmanship.
In psychology the term “Self-Esteem” is used to describe a person’s overall sense of self- worth or personal value. Self-esteem is often seen as a personality trait, which means that it tends to be stable and enduring.
Self-esteem can involve a variety of beliefs about the self, such as the appraisal of one’s own appearance, belief, emotions and behaviours.
Self-esteem is an essential human need that is vital for survival and normalcy. Self-esteem arises automatically from within. It is based upon the person’s belief and consciousness. Self-esteem occurs in conjugation with thoughts, behaviour, feeling and actions.
For positive self esteem one should list down his assets, talents and accomplishments; focus on positive aspects of life; stop criticizing self or others; develop mastery; develop positive body image; educate himself; develop healthy and personal lifestyle; play and exercise daily; strengthen social support.
IMPACT OF BODY IMAGE IN SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY
Body image is how we feel about our bodies. For many people it is a big issue that affects how they think and feel about themselves as a person.
With a positive or healthy body image you feel comfortable and confident in your body, have a generally true perception of your size and shape and understand that physical appearance does not define your character and value.
You accept your unique body and do not spend much time worrying about food, weight or calories.
On the other hand, people with negative body image continuously compare their bodies with others, feel shame, anxiety and self-consciousness about their bodies and may have a distorted perception of their shape and size.
A poor body image can lead to unhappiness, emotional distress, low self-esteem, dieting, anxiety, depression, obsession with weight loss and greater likelihood of developing an eating disorder.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GAME AND SPORTS
People often take game and sport as to be the same one. However, game and sport are entirely different.
Game is played for enjoyment, These are the activities which are played against the opponents and movements, actions, techniques and tactics changes according to opponent.
A game is also for recreational activities and it involves one or more players, played on the basis of a set of rules, a game is defined as a goal that the players try to achieve.
In “game” an individual’s talent does not determine a game; it is the entire performance of the players that determines the winner in a game.
An individual’s skill or performance, though has much significance, does not count much in a game; it is only the coordination and team spirit that leads the game.
A person who participates in a game is known as player. A player cannot take such independent decisions in a game. A decision is taken at a game collectively among two or more players. game involves one or more than one person.
Games can be against single or team opponents like; Single opponent: Badminton, Tennis, Table Tennis, Judo, Wrestling, Taekwondo, Chess etc. Team opponents: Basketball, Handball, Hockey, Football, Kho-Kho, Kabaddi, Volleyball, Rugby etc.
These are the activities played in which skill ability is counted for result. There are many competitors compete together for best performance of their skill abilities.
Sport is an activity or activities where the material capabilities of the sportsperson are looked upon. In a sport, it is the sportsperson or the individual who determines the outcome.
A person participating in a sport is called as athlete or a sports person. Sport is based on individual performances. In a sport, the athlete can take independent decisions.
In a sport, the athlete or sports person is expected to show good sportsmanship and also have high standards of conduct like respecting the opponents and the officials.
Sport is organized and competitive. It also requires commitment and fair play. An athlete or a sports person always gain popularity and maintains a name for his skills.
In Sports skill ability is tested among many athletes. The Sports activities are like: Athletics Events (Sprint Races, Medium Distance Races, Long Races , Jumping Events, Throws etc.); Aquatics Events (Free Style events, Brest/ Butterfly/ Back Stroke events, Diving); Gymnastics Events; Weight Lifting, Shooting, Archery, Sailing etc.
CONCEPT OF EMOTIONS
Emotions are intense feeling that are directed at someone or something. Emotions are subjective, conscious experiences characterised by expressions, biological reactions and mental status.
According to Hockenbury, “An emotion is complex psychological state that involves three distinct components : a subjective experience, a physiological response and a behavioural or expressive response.”
Emotions are affective state of consciousness in which joy, sorrow, Hate or the like is experienced as distinguished from cognitive and volitional state of consciousness.
Emotions are consistent responses to internal or external events, wine particular significance for organism. These responses may be verbal, physiological, behavioural and natural mechanism.
Emotions may be positive or negative like joy versus sadness, anger versus fear, trust versus distrust, surprise versus anticipation.
Methods of Controlling Emotions in Sports
Controlled outlet of emotions are positive part of personality whereas uncontrolled emotions decline personality. Controlling emotions does not mean ignoring them.
It means to recognise the and to act when appropriate, not randomly and uncontrollably whenever you feel like it. We can control our life by controlling our emotions.
Emotions can be controlled by these ways :
- Control Your Breathing : Slow and deep breathing helps to control emotions and stay calm.
- Keep Your Head up : It brings confidence and helps to control emotions. Keep your head up, look ahead and shoulders up.
- Physical Activity : It changes the mood by taking in distraction, thus perform physical activity.
- Meditate : It relaxes the mind and keeps us calm, thus emotions can be controlled.
- Detach yourself from Situation : Try to detach yourself from the situation and try to involve in different situation.
- Decide Your Response : Give a logical try to imagine the same situation happening to someone else.
- Develop Patience : Develop your patience and tolerance towards aggression. ought how to respond to your emotions.
- Think about Other Possibilities : Think about the other responses and possibilities, i.e., shifting to other prospectives.
- Talk to Yourself : Talking to self helps to make things clearer and tends to help brain by sorting out situations.
- Enjoy Nature : Enjoying nature, it brings pleasant feeling and helps to control negative
- Change Your Thoughts : Try to change your thoughts and consider some other situation.
- Take A Break : Take a break and perform some other work to change emotion.
- Avoid Health Hazards : Avoid health hazards like Alcohol, Tobacco, Drugs, etc.
Role of Motivation in Sports Psychology
The word ‘Motivation’ is derived from Latin word ‘Mover’ which means ‘to change or to move’. Thus motivation is referred as to change inner urge to achieve the goal.
Motivation is a kind of inner force which energises the person to make constant effort. In other words, motivation is the condition which increases the desire to perform better.
According to Goods, “Motivation is process of arousing. sustaining and regulating the Activity.”
According to Murray, “Motivation is an internal factor that arouses, directs and integrates a person’s behaviour.”
According to Crooks, “Motivation is any actions condition that might energise and direct our actions.”
Thus, motivation is a process by which individual is inspired, stimulated, guided and directed properly towards high achievement. Motivation is directly related with better performance.
In our everyday life…
We use many types of motivational terms like desires, wish, aims etc. Motivational process regulates the behaviour of a person. It is extremely complex a difficult to understand, interpret, predict and control.
Types of Motivation in Sports Psychology
Motivation is of two types :
(a) Intrinsic or Internal Motivation : This motivation is within an individual and guides him to perform better to satisfy one’s own personal feelings.
Internal motivation depends upon basic needs like biological needs (thirst, hunger), social needs (family, friends, etc.), psychological needs (interest, attitude, love, self-esteem), personal needs (safety, personality, economical, etc.).
It is based upon bodily needs, instinct, nature, emotional needs, social needs, etc. As man is born with certain behaviour which develops certain interest and attitude, this makes him to act enthusiastically.
Sometimes emotional needs like love, affection, hate, jealousy, etc., inspire man to perform better. Internal motivation also depends upon knowledge of result, personal factor, emotions, competition zeal etc.
If one is aware about what he is doing and knows its consequences, this makes a person ready (physically and mentally) to perform better.
(b) Extrinsic or External Motivation : This motivation depends upon environmental factors. External motivation has great impact on an individual’s performance.
It is of various types like:
(i) Reward : As man is inclined towards materialistic world so reward has great effect on performance. Rewards are of various types and help in achieving the goal, like cash prize, job, professional security, honour, recognition, social status, etc.
(ii) Punishment : Punishment has its own impact on performance to certain limit. Punishment is of various types like physical punishment, blame, economic punishment, social withdrawal, etc.
(iii) Active Participation : Active participation develops leadership qualities which encourages one to do continuous progress.
(iv) Audio Visual Aids : In effective learning there is more clarity of goal which involves large number of sensory organs. Thus, audio-visual aids are effective in motivation.
(v) Test, Evaluations and Competitions : The se methods help us to know our abilities deficiencies and comparison (in relation to others). These act as feedback to overcome deficiencies and improve further.
(vi) Teaching Methods : An effective teaching method directly influences for a high performance.
(vii) Teacher-Pupil Relationship : Healthy relationship between teacher and pupil improves learning, thus, performance increases.
(viii) Equipment and Surroundings : Modern equipment and healthy surroundings act as motivating factors for high performance.
Some Important Roles of Motivation in Sports Psychology
Motivational factors play a very important role on the performance of a sportsperson. By using motivational factor, a high level of performance can be achieved in sports. Thus, it may bring good winning results.
Some roles of Motivation in sports are as follows:
- Good Health of Athlete : The good health of a player is always a motivating factor. It encourages an athlete to participate to optimum level in sports activities.
- Healthy Environment : Healthy, clean and hygienic environment motivates the players to participate to maximum level.
- Good Apparatus and Good Playfields : Good quality apparatus or equipments and good playfields improve the performance of a player.
- Sufficient Practice : If a player is aware about how to perform or how to do that activity, then performance is better. This can be achieved if player had performed sufficient practice in the past.
- Reward and Punishment : If player is informed about what he gets from it or what he loses then performance is better. Punishment should be given for wrong thing.
- Coaching and Guidance : Coaching and guidance during activity has an important role in performance. Good coaching skills improve the performance. It should involve good teaching methods.
- Spectators’ Crowd Feedback : Good and positive responses of spectators encourage the players towards better performance.
- Interaction between Own Teammates : A healthy interaction between own teammates improves performance during competition.
- Organisation and Officiating : Good organisation, proper officiating, good judgement. etc., encourage the players towards better performance.
- Safety Means : Proper safety means help players to perform, to optimum level, thus performance is improved.
- Competition : Healthy and good sports competition is a motivating factor for improve in performance. Team Work: Team work is always a motivating factor, thus good team work, collective efforts, leadership quality should be encouraged to improve performance.
LEADERSHIP THROUGH PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
Leadership is a social quality which is found among people of various ages, sex (male and female), members of different races and from various cultural and economic background.
The dictionary meaning of the word “leader’ is one who directs others.
According to R.M. Snodgill : “Leadership is a process of influencing the activities of an organised group for any goal achievement.”
According to P.M. Joseph : “Leadership is the quality which enables the person to take initiative and guide others in performing some required task.”
According to Montgomery : “The capacity to rally people for common purpose.”
Good leadership requires three basic things:
(i) Good leader
(ii) Good followers
(iii) Common purpose
There are two types of leaders : (i) Professional (i) Democratic
(i) Professional leader : Professional leader is that who earns the quality of leadership by becoming a teacher, officer, administrator or manager, etc.
(ii) Democratic leader : It is of two types. They are choosen by the choice of the people.
(a) Mature leader : Mature leader is like a political leader.
(b) Amateur leader : These are leaders with voluntary service like student leader, game leader, captain, group leader, academic leader, cultural leader and stage leader, etc.
In our democratic society, everyone has the right to be a leader in any field of his interest. Educationists believe that learning by doing is the best form of education.
For a student every opportunity must be provided to practice leadership. School programmes must be planned proper to encourage leaders.
In various games and sports the leadership ability has to be developed get good results, thus, performance improves.
Games and sports provide opportunity to a student to develop leadership qualities. It is highly developed through physical education and its activities A good leader raises the group to new heights and it helps the society.
QUALITIES OF A LEADER OR CAPTAIN
- Academically Sound : He must be well qualified with good command and should have good experience to lead the group. Leader should have sufficient knowledge about the subjects. He must be efficient to give comment and understand the needs of the group.
- Good Personality : Leader should have a handsome and attractive personality. Leader must be fit and healthy along with good perfection in the activity.
- Good Moral Character : Leader must possess moral values with good character. Leader’s behaviour should be good and an example for others. The social qualities of a leader should be praiseworthy.
- Intelligent : Leader should be intelligent and creative. Leader must think logically with abstract thinking to solve the problem. Leader must understand the needs of the group.
- Self-Discipline : Self-discipline, regularity, punctuality, adjustment, politeness, patience and tolerance must be possessed by leader. This inspires others to do the same.
- Determination : Firm decision-making capability and determination are expected from a good leader. Leader must have the desire to improve further and solve problem on priority basis.
- Inculcate Friendship : Leader should encourage cooperation, team spirit, brotherhood and inspire group to do the same. Courageous quality and logical thinking enhance the leadership qualities.
- Master of Physical Skill : Leader should be able to demonstrate as well as explain the physical skill to others for better understanding. A good leader should be courageous.
- Expressive and Optimistic : Leader should be able to express his ideas in an easy way. Leader must have an imaginative and optimistic attitude to guess problems and solve them.
- Loyal : Leader must be loyal to his group and do sincere efforts for progress of group; moreover, leader should encourage others to do the same. He or she should be sincere and honest towards the group.
- Example for Others : Leader’s behaviour should be such that everybody is impressed him or her and should present an example for others.
- Impartial : Leader should be impartial and unbiased towards his followers, He or she could justify to their group and support every member,
ROLE OF LEADER OR CAPTAIN
- Group Representation : Leader is the representative of the group. Leader expresses various ideas, thoughts and interests of the group represents group in delegations, occasions and meetings. Leader takes decision on behalf of group.
- Opportunity to Direct : It provides opportunity to direct and lead the group for herterment. It improves the command, class or team control in better way and excel in every group. It expresses the ideas, sphere, fun.
- Reduces Stress : It enables a teacher or coach to spend more time for teaching or coaching or other important work. It reduces the stress of teacher or coach.
- Better Discipline : A student leader helps in better utilisation of class time as he assists the teacher or coach in class discipline.
- Develops Socialization : A leader develops social qualities among its team members and encourages others to do same.
- Inspire Others : Student leader encourages and inspires others to perform better. They motivates the group to improve further.
- Close Relationship : A student leader provides close and healthy relationship of a student with the teacher or coach, thus, better understanding between them.
- Better Organization : Leadership improves organization skills, thus, better organization. A leader ensures better adjustment and good use of resources of a student with teacher.
- Good Medium to Convey : Leader acts as good medium to convey between students and teacher, thus, better understanding.
- Improves Abilities : Good leadership improves the various skills and abilities of the leader and group, thus, progress of all.
- Provide Recognition : Good leadership provide recognition of group in society and impresses everyone.
- Improves Coordination : Leader improves the coordination of group, thus, collective effort of the group.
These days sports competitions are very tough. Players are techniques and best training methods for better results during competitions. Even then they are not satisfied by their results. We have mainly discussed about 11+ weird roles of Motivation in Sports Psychology.
Thus the importance of Psychology was realised in physical education to give best possible results of players. Sports Psychology is the branch of Psychology which deals with positive behaviour of sportsperson during training and competition period to increase performance.
It guides coaches and players to give individual attention regarding various methods and various motivational techniques, I gives knowledge regarding adolescence problems, changes during adolescence, managing adolescence problems.
It guides sports ethics and sportsmanship to develop sports attitude. The knowledge of sports psychology, coaches and players to develop and control anxiety level.
It also helps to tackle various stresses of life. This article will help to understand the roles of Motivation in Sports Psychology in our life and especially in the field of physical using best education.
Important points covered in the article are :-
- What is Psychology ?
- What is Sports Psychology ?
- Importance of Sports Psychology.
- Psychological Effect of Exercise
- Roles of Motivation in Sports Psychology